Or so goes the argument. Still.

I wish Apple would just pull the plug and completely remove MRC support from LLVM. I’m getting tired, annoyed and sometimes angry when I browse stackoverflow.com and frequently find MRC code samples containing one or more blatant memory management issues.

Before I rant any further, this article is about testing the performance difference of ARC vs MRC code. I provide some examples, and the updated performance measurement project I’ve used before for cocos2d performance analysis, and the results of the full run at the bottom. I also split it into both synthetic low-level tests and closer to real-world algorithms to prove not one but two points:

ARC is generally faster, and ARC can indeed be slower – but that’s no reason to dismiss it altogether.

Measuring & Comparing Objective-C ARC vs MRC performance

Without further ado, here are the results of the low-level MRC vs ARC performance tests, obtained from an iPod touch 5th generation with compiler optimizations enabled (release build):

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Busted! Eight Reasons not to use ARC

On June 28, 2012, in idevblogaday, by Steffen Itterheim

So, you’ve heard about Objective-C automatic reference counting (ARC). And you’ve read about it here and there and every where. But you’re not using it.

Guess what? You’re not alone. There are developers out there who refuse to use ARC, who delay using it, who believe they just can’t use it or expressly decided against using ARC for the time being. They all have their reasons.

Most of them are wrong.

Here’s a summary of reasons I’ve heard (repeatedly) in the past months from developers who aren’t using ARC, or have tried it but gave up using it. And I’ll tell you why these rationalizations are wrong, or at least over-inflated.

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You heard right: if you want to forget about using retain, release and autorelease in your code, then the newly introduced automatic reference counting (ARC) mechanism (aka “automatic memory management”) is the way to go. And guess what?

Kobold2D Preview 6 fully supports ARC out of the box!

Download Kobold2D Preview 6

You may have heard that Cocos2D is incompatible with ARC at this time, and you’re right. However, the Cocos2D version in Kobold2D Preview 6 released just now has been improved to work with ARC. This post explains the most important changes to make Cocos2D compatible with ARC. All 15 Kobold2D example projects compile with and without ARC, just like the other libraries Kobold2D makes use of!

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cocos2d Book, Chapter 7: Side-Scrolling Shooter

On August 6, 2010, in Announcements, book, cocos2d, by Steffen Itterheim

Chapter 7 – Side-Scrolling Shooter

The shooter game will be controlled with a virtual joystick using SneakyInput. The background parallax scrolling will be implemented not with the CCParallaxLayer, as it does not support endless scrolling (as far as I know, please correct me if I’m wrong). The rest will be gameplay code, mostly spawning enemies, moving them and collision tests.

The chapter will be submitted on Friday, August 13th. Yup, Friday the 13th. Scary.

Summary of working on Chapter 6 – Sprites In-Depth

I decided to rename this chapter to Sprites In-Depth as it deals mostly with Sprites, Sprite Batching (formerly known as Sprite Sheets), Texture Atlases and Zwoptex as well as general texture memory management. All the while laying the foundation for the game to be made in Chapter 7.

While working on this chapter I noticed that it’s awfully complex to create a CCAnimation class, especially if you’re not using a Texture Atlas. So I decided to illustrate how to add helper methods by adding them via a Objective-C Category to the CCAnimation class. Now you can create a CCAnimation with just one line of code, instead of around ten.

Once more I created some of my now famous doodle artworks. If anything this should show that even a programmer can do art. Or, well, at least something that vaguely resembles art.

I was a bit surprised by one thing though, and that is how little the use of the CCSpriteBatchNode contributed to the framerate in this particular case. I added all the bullets to a CCSpriteBatchNode and found only a 15% increase in performance, it went up from 45 fps to a little over 50 with all those bullets flying. I sort of expected a bigger impact from previous experiences.

While helping others solve their cocos2d project issues over the past year it became obvious that many projects have at least one major problem in one of these areas:

  • memory management
  • resource management
  • code structure


Memory management issues normally range from allocating too much memory, either by loading too many textures up front which are only going to be needed later, or by memory leaks such as scenes not deallocating when switching scenes. Resource management problems range from not adding the right resources to the right target, often resulting in increased App size because resources are added to the bundle but never used by the App. It could also mean loading identical resource files except that they have different filenames (copies?), using up additional memory. Or not tightly packing sprites into Texture Atlases but instead using one Texture Atlas per game object – while this is understandable from a standpoint of logical seperation it does waste opportunities for optimization.

Finally, code structure or lack thereof regularly leads to “everything in one class” code design which is most likely an evolutionary process rather than intentional. It’s not uncommon to see classes with thousands of lines of code, sometimes even going past 10,000 lines of code in one class. Other things are using too many CCLayers without them adding a clear benefit, for example just to group all nodes at a specific z order together or to group them by functionality, eg one layer for enemies, one for players, one for background, one for UI, one for score, one for particle effects, and so on – without any of these layers being used for what they’re really good at: modifying multiple nodes at once, like moving, scaling, rotating or z-reordering them. And of course there’s the copy & paste hell, large blocks of code reproduced in various places only to modify some parameters instead of creating a method which takes the modifiable parameters as arguments. Even professionals I worked with got so used to doing that it became hard just to overcome the resistance of letting go of old habits. But they learned.


Nothing of this code design and structuring strikes me as odd or surprising. I’ve written code like this myself. I also believe if it’s good enough and works, then why the hell not? It’s a matter of experience and it’s only with experience that you clearly see how to improve things. This boils down to the regular learning curve where only training and tutoring and just simply making mistakes and learning from them helps in the long run. That’s how we learn things.

On the other hand, the things like Memory and Resource Management can also be learned but they have a different nature. They can be statistically assessed, they could be calculated and verified automatically. This makes me wonder if there isn’t some kind of automation and information tools that would help developers achieve better results in terms of memory usage and resource management? In the meantime it’s all about raising awareness …

Raising Memory Awareness

Most importantly I think we need to raise more awareness to these issues to cocos2d developers. One step towards that would be for cocos2d to display a “available memory counter” alongside the FPS counter. I used to patch CCDirector to simply display memory instead of FPS since that was always more important to me. Fellow cocos2d developer Joseph sent me his version to display both – I simply didn’t think of the obvious. So if you’d like to see FPS and available memory next to each other I think you can handle the changes to CCDirector outlined here:

Raising awareness to leaking Scenes

In addition I highly, strongly and with utmost reinforcement (without pulling out a gun) recommend to cocos2d developers to frequently check your scene’s dealloc methods. Preferably add a breakpoint there, or at the very least add the logging line: CCLOG(@”dealloc: %@”, self). If you want a more visible but less intrusive method you could do something like flashing the screen or playing a sound whenever the last scene is deallocated, so that you get so used to it that when you’re not seeing or hearing it anymore it immediately raises your attention.

If at any time during the development of your project the dealloc method of a scene isn’t called when you change scenes, you’re leaking memory. Leaking the whole scene is a memory leak of the worst kind. You want to catch that early while you can still retrace your steps that might have caused the problem. Once you get to using hundreds of assets and thousands of lines of code and then realize the scene isn’t deallocated, you’ll be in for a fun ride trying to figure out where that’s coming from. In that case, removing nodes by uncommenting them until you can close in on the culprit is probably the best strategy, next to using Instruments (which I haven’t found too helpful in those cases).

I ran into such a problem once because I was passing the CCScene object to subclasses so that they have access to the scene’s methods. The subclass retained the scene and was itself derived from CCNode and added to the CCScene as child. The problem with that: during cleanup of the scene it correctly removed all child nodes but some of the child nodes still retained the scene. Because of that their dealloc method was never called, and in turn the scene was never deallocated.

cocos2d Book, Chapter 3: Essentials

On July 10, 2010, in Announcements, book, cocos2d, by Steffen Itterheim

Chapter 3 – Essentials

This chapter is a reference about the fundamental classes of cocos2d and how to use them. Nodes, Layers, Scenes, Labels, Sprites, Transitions, Actions, you name it. Also CCDirector, SimpleAudioEngine and other often used singleton classes as well. More advanced concepts will be discussed in a later chapter, Spritesheets for example.

The submission of the first chapter draft is due next Friday, July 16th.

What do you think should be in Chapter 3?

Do you know a cocos2d class or process that you think is essential and should be discussed in this chapter? Let me know!

Summary of working on Chapter 2 – Getting Started

For one I detailed the Hello World sample project and made a simple modification using touch input. At the same time at least some basic level of understanding about cocos2d classes was introduced but the gist of it is done in Chapter 3. In addition, there were a lot of theoretical aspects I wanted to discuss as well, most of all Memory Management and available memory as well as setting expectations on testing on Simulator vs. a device. And of course the devices and their subtle differences. I do hope that those kind of details are appreciated even if they’re not 100% related to cocos2d. I regularly see cocos2d developers struggling with memory issues, with unexpected differences on the device vs the Simulator, or comparing framerates of the Simulator and possibly even Debug builds. That made me want to stray off the beaten path for a moment to hopefully save the readers some misconceptions and the pain associated with them.

I also realized how many steps a new developer has to go through and how much there is to learn in case you’ve never been working with the iPhone SDK before. It starts with registering as iPhone developer and doesn’t end with installing the SDK because you also need the provisioning profiles, a much discussed and troublesome feature. For all of this I refered to existing (and excellent) Apple documentation. Typically the processes change with each new iPhone SDK or may even be under NDA, so discussing how all of this works with iPhone SDK 4 wouldn’t be a good idea since shortly after the book is out iPhone SDK 5 may be coming, introducing changes to the Developer Portal and iTunes Connect with it. It did get me the idea, and I know others have it too, that we need some holding-hands Tutorial which takes one through the steps from registering as iPhone Developer to publishing one’s first App, by referring to the correct official documentation for each step while not forgetting about common pitfalls that are not in the official docs.

I also noticed how easy it can be to overlook how you suddenly introduce a new concept without explaining it first. And then you have to decide how much information is necessary to introduce the concept without straying too far away from what you want to talk about in the first place. It’s especially hard for me because I tend to want to explain everything in detail but some things have to be left for a later discussion. I’m looking forward to editorial feedback now. It has helped tremendeously for the first chapter and I learned a lot from the Apress editorial staff, so I find it exciting that the experts point me to the flaws and make suggestions, I go in to fix them and then see how much better it is. That’s how I like to learn things and it’s going to be one of the core concepts of the book. Show how it’s done, how it shouldn’t be done (if it’s often done wrong) and how it can be done even better if you want to avoid trouble in the long run, while explaining why.

cocos2d Book, Chapter 2: Getting Started

On July 2, 2010, in Announcements, book, cocos2d, by Steffen Itterheim

Chapter 2 – Getting Started

This chapter starts with the usual prerequisites. Download and install iPhone SDK and cocos2d. Installing cocos2d Templates. Creating the first project from a cocos2d project template.

From what I already wrote I estimate that will be about one third of the chapter. I think what would be most interesting in this chapter is to talk about general code structure of cocos2d projects. The basic elements like Scenes, Layers and Nodes. How to transition from one screen to another, to see that we’re actually doing something cool with little effort. For that I think the scheduled selectors should also be introduced to time transitions, and one screen might be a Layer which is waiting for touch input to advance to the next screen.

It might also be a good place to discuss cocos2d memory management, like static autorelease initializers, and making sure dealloc gets called when you switch scenes – otherwise you’re obviously having a memory leak.

The goal is to get the reader into a position where he feels comfortable laying out a screen structure in cocos2d. He knows how to initialize objects and how to add and remove them from the scene. The foundation of working with cocos2d if you so will.

What do you think should be in Chapter 2?

Let me know if you think I’m missing anything important. If you don’t have any suggestions then just think about what you would expect from the chapter by reading this description, that might give you some thoughts.

Also I would welcome any tips and the common pitfalls first-time cocos2d developers might trap themselves into. Expert tips are also welcome, those little nasty things or habits which could bite you later on if you don’t consider them from the beginning.

I’m looking forward to your feedback! The earlier the better. Chapter 2 will be submitted next Friday, July 9th.

What’s planned for the Chapter after this one

Just to put Chapter 2 in context, for Chapter 3 I’m planning to talk about essential cocos2d classes and processes. Sprites, Labels, Menus, Actions, etc. It’ll show you how to work with them using small code snippets. The chapter will probably have a “reference” character with various code samples, so that experienced users feel comfortable skipping ahead while beginners still find it easy and encouraging to pick up the details.

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